Limestone, also known as Kireçtaşı, is often used in marine products such as corals, foraminifera and mollusks.
It is a carbonate sedimentary rock composed of skeletal parts of living things. Its main ingredients are calcite and aragonite minerals (CaCO3), which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate. A closely related rock is dolomite with a high content of the mineral dolomite CaMg (CO3) 2.
In the old USGS publications, dolomite magnesium was called Limestone, it is now divided into magnesium-deficient dolomites or magnesium-rich limestones.
Approximately 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestone. The solubility of limestone in water and its weak acid solutions lead to karst landscapes where water erodes limestone from thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems pass through limestone bedrock.
Limestone has numerous uses: as a building material, an essential component of concrete (Portland cement), an additive in the construction of roads, white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints, as a chemical raw material for lime production, as a soil conditioner, and It is used as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens.Limestone can be crystalline, clastic, granular or massive, depending on the method of formation. Calcite, quartz, dolomite or barite crystals can create small voids in the rock. When rainfall conditions are right, calcite forms mineral coatings that bind existing rock grains together or can fill in fractures.Like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestones are made up of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal parts of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains containing limestones are ooids, peloids, intraclasts, and extraclasts. These organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite and leave these shells behind when they die.Limestone usually contains varying amounts of silica in the form of chert (chalcedony, flint, jasper, etc.) or a siliceous skeleton fragment (sponge spicules, diatoms, radiolarians) and varying amounts of clay, silt and sand (terrestrial particles). by the rivers.Some limestones contain no grains and are formed entirely by chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, ie travertine. Secondary calcite can accumulate with supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates material in caves). This produces speleothems such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form that calcite takes is the oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular (oolite) appearance.The primary source of calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can build rock piles known as reefs dating back to past generations. Water pressure and temperature conditions below about 3,000 meters cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone does not typically form in deeper waters (see lysocline). Limestone can also occur in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments.Limestone calcite can dissolve or precipitate in groundwater depending on various factors such as water temperature, pH and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits an unusual property called retrograde solubility in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases.Travertine is a compact type of limestone with stripes formed along streams, especially where there are waterfalls and hot or cold springs. Calcium carbonate accumulates where evaporation of water leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical components of calcite. Near the waterfalls tuff is a porous or cellular type of travertine. Coquina is a weakly consolidated limestone composed of coral or shell fragments.During the regional metamorphism that occurs during mountain formation (orogeny), limestone turns into marble.Limestone is the main material of the Mollisol soil group and is a rock with a wide variety of uses. It may be the only rock used in more ways than others. Most limestones are made into crushed stone and used as building material. Used as crushed stone for road base and railway ballast. It is used as aggregate in concrete. It is baked in a furnace with crushed shale to make cement.Some limestone varieties perform well in these uses because they are strong, dense rocks with low voids. These properties make them well resistant to corrosion and freeze-thaw.Although Limestone does not perform as well as some of the harder silicate rocks in these uses, it is much easier to mine and does not have the same level of wear on mining equipment, crushers, screens and the bearings of the vehicles that carry it.Limestone is partially soluble, especially in acid, and therefore forms many erosional soil forms. These include limestone pavements, trench holes, cenotes, caves and gorges. These types of erosion scenes are known as karst. Limestone is less resistant than most igneous rocks, but more durable than other sedimentary rocks. For this reason it is often associated with hills and terrain and is seen in areas with other sedimentary rocks, typically clays.Limestone is a very common rocks in Turkey. This land occupies about one-fifth of Turkey. For this reason, karstic forms of erosion and accumulation are found everywhere. Turkey’s Taurus Mountains is the largest karst area of the region. There are many caves in the region, some of which are open to tourism. Also landforms occur in Turkey dolins, dolines, sinkholes, caves, travertine, stalactites, stalagmites, columns are like manner.Limestone is very common in architecture, especially in Europe and North America. Many landmarks in the world, including the Great Pyramid in Giza, Egypt and its complex, are made of limestone. Many buildings in Kingston, Ontario, Canada have been and continue to be dubbed the ‘Limestone City’. On the island of Malta, various limestones, called Globigerina Limestone, were the only building materials available for a long time and are still used very often in all kinds of buildings and sculptures. Limestone is readily available, can be cut into blocks or relatively easy to work with more elaborate engraving.Limestone is long-lasting and withstands exposure to external influences well, which explains why many limestone residues survive. However, limestone is very heavy, impractical for tall buildings and relatively expensive as a building material.Limestone was also a very popular building block in the areas where it was used in the Middle Ages because it appears on hard, durable and easily accessible surfaces. Many medieval churches and castles in Europe are made of limestone. Beerstone is a popular type of limestone for medieval buildings in southern England.
Limestone and (to a lesser extent) marble are reactive towards acid solutions, and the effects of acid rain pose a significant problem for the preservation of artifacts made from this stone. Many limestone sculptures and building surfaces were severely damaged by acid rain.
Likewise, limestone gravel has been used to protect acid rain sensitive lakes, which act as a pH buffering agent. Acid-based cleaning chemicals also corrode limestone, which should only be cleaned with a neutral or slightly alkaline based cleaner.
The areas where Limestone is used most are; Industrial areas such as cement production, lime production, agricultural sector, metallurgy, flue gas treatment, glass, sugar, paper, rubber, paint. One of the areas where Limestone is used is the construction industry. Limestone is used as a filling material in various places such as mortar construction or roads. When choosing according to the place of use, attention should be paid to the hardness and resistance degrees of limestone.
Fine-grained and crushed limestone is used in constructions by being added to concrete mortar. Limestones are mostly used as raw materials in cement production, after construction sites. about 1.4 ratio of the amount of limestone with limestone alias produced in Turkey are used for cement production. Limestone, which is supplied as a block from the quarry, can be slabs and sized according to the projects, and made ready for use.